All posts by charly

Another Arredondo Map

click to zoom in

My second cousin and childhood friend, Farris Cadle, sent me the link to this map of St Simons Island. It portrays the Spanish invasion in 1742, including a list of the ships involved, the armaments, and numbers and types of personnel. The legend also describes the English fortifications, houses, roads, etc. on St Simons (Gualquini, the indigenous name), and Jekyll (Isla de las Ballenas, the spanish name, “isle of whales”).

The original is in the Spanish Archives in Madrid, and has now been digitized for all the world to see. Another, earlier Arredondo map, made in 1737, of the St Simons sound area is in the Hargrett library collection at UGA, and also in the Library of Congress. More here about it.

Here is the link to the Spanish National Library (BNE) with a viewer. There is a lot of information packed into these online files- if you have access to a large printer a good sized wall copy could be made. I would like to get a translation of all of the legend to print out, and would really appreciate some help with that. if anyone is interested please drop me a note.

Thanks to Farris for the heads up and to Bob Drury for the print!

Basic Sailing Lesson Four: Sails

If you have read and learned the first three lessons here then you already know the basics. Congratulations! All the rest is frippery. Now you have the rest of your life to wallow in the minutae.

The sails catch the wind (duh). You could argue ad infinitum about the proper shape. Sailors are forever tweaking the sails when underway to try and get the most power out of them. Enough about that.

Nowadays, almost all sails are triangular in shape. Each corner of the sail has a name:

Head- top
Clew- the other one

Also, each side of the sail triangle has a name

Luff -leading edge
Leech- trailing edge
Foot- bottom

You have to learn these names. Otherwise you won’t be able to communicate well with your crew members when underway, and mayhem will ensue.
you need to crank down on that thing there so that the thing isn’t flapping and causing that thing to come unhooked from the thing…

also helpful to know the ropes-
halyard- hoists the sail
sheets- control the sail
outhaul- stretches the foot of the sail
lazy jacks- lines that keep the sail in an orderly bunch when you drop the sail
topping lift- a line that holds the boom up off the deck

Interior Decorating

After two years in the water, I have gotten around to hanging my first interior decoration. Here it is. (double click on it to read)


This is the final order on a list of instructions to his fleet that was drawn up by the slave trader John Hawkins in 1564, prior to his second voyage to the New World.

He stopped in at Fort Caroline, near here, on his way back to England

St Augustine

We spent the first night in Crooked River anchorage after a quick stop on Cumberland Island at Plum Orchard Mansion. There is a nice dock there, on the Brick hill River. I don’t know what the deal is with it, but nobody was around so we tied up. The mosquitos were so fierce we only stayed long enough to snap a few pictures. We will definitely have to go back later this winter, and spend some time. The mansion is just about a half mile above where the Brickhill converges with the ICW, actually the Cumberland River. The Crooked river empties into almost the same spot from the west. When going in, if you hug its north bank for a few hundred yards, there is ten or twelve feet of water in there with room to swing, a gentle current, and many less bugs.







Bath day on the Tolomato River. Another good anchorage about ten miles North of St Augustine.

Castillio de San Marcos, from the north mooring field where we spent the night.

dsc01294 Patty and Thad joined us for breakfast on Sunday morning. It was Thad’s birthday! We had pancakes with bacon, eggs and sausage as we watched the town come to life.

img_3680 There is a launch that runs every two hours from 8am-6pm. EXcept Sunday when the first run is at ten. So…

The trip home we had some fog in the mornings

Drydock at Mayport.
passing a fellow travelerdsc01315

This was “Brother” Jim’s third trip on the Spirit of St Simons. A talented teacher, artist, chef, story teller, and all around good company.

We saw a good bit of damage from Hurricane Matthew. At Fernandina we counted over a dozen good sized boats on the beach. The city dock was completely closed down. Fuel was available at Amelia Island Yacht Basin, but their channel is narrow and fairly shallow. We got in and out OK at low water, but with a deep draft you would be tide dependent.

Basic Sailing lesson Three- More on Tacking

Ok, we have learned that the act of zig zagging to get to a destination is called tacking

Now, If the wind is coming from the port (left) side of the boat, then you are on a “port tack”
If the wind is coming from the starboard (right) side of the boat then you are on a “starboard tack”

Turning the boat (tacking) upwind so that the eye of the wind passes from one side of the boat to the other, is called “coming about” or to “come about”

Turning the boat downwind, (also tacking) so that the wind passes from one side of the boat to the other is called Gybing or to gybe. (pronounced JIBE. not to be confused with jib which is a kind of sail)

To “come about” is to tack upwind
To “gybe” is to tack downwind

It is important that the crew is aware if the boat is about to tack, since whether coming about or gybing, the sail will be swinging across the deck. The sail is attached to the mast, and usually to a boom, which is a horizontal tube, or spar, that can whack you in the head if you aren’t paying attention.

coming about
port tack
starboard tack

In a sentence: We were cooking along on a port tack when the boat gybed accidentally, shaking the mast and scaring the beejezus out of us.

PS port and starboard: here is how you remember which is which. Port wine comes from Portugal. Traditionally, when at the dinner table, you always pass it to the left, if you have any class. We never drank wine at the table, but we did pass the bottle over the carseat at the drive in. Anyway, port = left, then you can figure out the starboard part from there.

A Good Time Was Had By All!

A nice afternoon sail with Buddy, Judi, Frank, Debbie, Rob and Suzy.

Northwester. Cool, clear and dry air, 12-15kts. Once you clear the Lanier Bridge, heading East, there is enough sea room to tack back and forth across the river without losing too much ground. On a flood tide, you don’t lose any ground, so it’s even better.






Basic Sailing – Lesson Two

What makes the boat go to windward??

It is easy to see how the wind can push anything across the water. If you throw an empty sardine can overboard it will take off downwind, pronto (till it sinks) . A sailboat is a little more sophisticated than that, because it has some control over its direction of movement. The controls on a sailboat are the sails and the rudder, but there is a big difference between a sailboat and any other watercraft: the underwater profile of the boat. The depth of the boat below the water has an important effect on how the boat will sail. The lowest part of a boat underwater is called the “keel”. This depth of keel provides what is known as “lateral resistance”, i.e., something to keep the boat from moving sideways. The deeper the keel, the more lateral resistance.

When the sails fill with wind one side of the sail has a higher pressure than the other. Notice in the diagram below that due to the angle of the sail in relation to the boat, some of this low pressure is on the forward part of the boat, and some of it is on the side of the boat

click on pic for larger view

What happens is that the keel, or the lateral resistance, cancels out the force pushing on the side of the boat, but not the force pushing on the front, and so the net result is that the boat moves forward. Note that the boat in the diagram below is moving to windward (or “going to weather”).


Without a keel, the boat above would be sliding off sideways. This sliding off sideways is called “leeway” Remember, the deeper the keel, the more lateral resistance, hence a better windward performance. The amount of leeway any given boat will make is important to know, as it has a direct effect on how you steer a course.

Lateral Resistance

in a sentence:
Her deep keel gives so much lateral resistance she makes very little leeway

Hurricane Season


The tires gave us some extra insurance against punctures. Thankfully they weren’t needed. The topsides paint is already scuffed up anyway, from the launch two years ago. Hopefully I can get some paint and graphics on soon.

It has been seventeen years since The Golden Isles’ last brush with a major storm. Hurricane Floyd, in 1999, made a very similar track to this years Hurricane Matthew, veering to the northeast at the last moment, only to brush by offshore, keeping us on the “good side” of the circulation.

Earlier, this September, the minimal hurricane Hermine came through, tracking from the southwest, out of the Gulf of Mexico.

Hermine actually did as much or more damage to local marine interests, mainly because the predominant wind was from the south. The large marinas here, Morningstar , and the condo docks next door, along with Brunswick Landing , all suffered because they are more exposed to that direction. Matthew’s winds, however, were mainly from the northeast, which is the most protected direction in each marina’s case.

Brunswick Landing,marina, where we are, had the least damage in Hermine, and virtually none from Matthew. There is no question that it is the most protected, but we were still all very lucky. Matthew happened to hit us at low tide. Since we have a tide range of six-eight feet, if the storm had passed over at high tide, the Cat 3 storm surge would have probably caused the floating docks to jump the pilings, setting whole rafts of boats adrift to bludgeon each other and everything else.

So far it has been a very good year for salvors, repair workers and tree surgeons.

Fort Caroline: A Reading List

french map florida from USFThere is some controversy as to the actual location of where Fort Caroline stood, and there are descrepiancies in the firsthand accounts of the events surrounding the struggle for French Florida. If you are unfamiliar with the basic history, here is an outline of what is known to have happened. This much is confirmed by a number of eyewitness documents:

In 1562, The French crossed the Atlantic, explored the coast and eventually built a fort on or near what is now Paris Island in South Carolina. They named it Charlesfort. The leader of the expedition, Jean Ribault, left a handful of settlers there and returned to France for reinforcements. They traded and sometimes fought with the natives. Ribault did not bring back supplies as he promised. Because of a complicated political and religious situation in Europe, he was imprisoned by the British. Meanwhile, the new French colony fell apart due to dissension and hardships. The colonists built a crude boat, deserted the fort and returned to France. The next year more Frenchmen returned and built a second fort somewhere to the south of the first, on the bank of a large river that they had discovered with Ribault on the first voyage. They named the river “May” and called the new fort “Caroline”. Again, they traded and sometimes fought with the natives, further exploring the region. Like the first attempt, these new colonists also experienced hardships, and were about to give up a second time and return to France, when Jean Ribault, finally released by the English, returned with supplies and reinforcements. At the same time though,(summer 1565) the Spaniards showed up, with orders from their king to remove all the Frenchmen. There was a naval battle, a huge storm, shipwrecks, and a land assault on the fort, in which it was taken by the Spanish and re-named Ft San Mateo. French Hugenot shipwreck survivors were rounded up and murdered by the Spanish Catholics. St Augustine was founded nearby. The fort, now controlled by the Spanish, was counter-attacked again a couple of years later by a Frenchman, Dominique du Gourges, and the occupants were put to the sword in the same manner as the French had been before. The French avengers did not stay around, so the Spanish returned to the fort, but later abandoned it for good. No hard archaeological evidence of the fort’s location has ever been formally recorded.

This is the basic thread of the incredible Fort Caroline story, but there are many interesting side trips woven in – mutinies, cannibalism, piracy, executions, religious fanaticism, explorations, indian alliances and battles, murders, captures and releases, slavery, Indian adoptions of shipwreck survivors, just for a start!

In April, 2014, on St Simons, the local historical society hosted a lecture and Q and A featuring . Fletcher Crowe and Anita Spring , two researchers, who outlined their findings on the fort’s location. Citing map and linguistic evidence, they contended that the original site was very likely on the Altamaha River, instead of on the St John’s River in Jacksonville, Florida, as has been generally accepted. Their report and its associated publicity has spawned a new generation of interest on the subject in the area, especially for local residents. After all, there is a certain intrigue in the possibility that there may have once been a group of French mutineer/ pirates hung from a gibbet in your backyard, or that those sand dunes you always sat in to gaze at the surf could have been witness to a bloody mass execution of “heretics”.

Other researchers also have been quietly moving independently in parallel. A Native American researcher and otherwise interesting fellow, Richard Thornton, claims that Crowe and Spring hijacked the whole Altamaha River location idea from him. He has written a book about fort Caroline. He cites, among other things, a convincing passage written by William Bartram in his journal, written in 1774, describing ancient ruins (they would already have been about two hundred years old by then ) of a fort on the south fork of the Altamaha, just across the river from Darien, somewhere around what is now the youth estate on the bluff where I 95 crosses the river delta. Using google Earth you can see some promising high ground spots along the south channnel of the river. It is easy to imagine this place as the forts location when you read some of the the original accounts, but the trouble is, it is easy to imagine other places as well.

Brunswick resident and archaeologist Fred Cook has done that, and he has also published a Fort Caroline study. Relying on map interpretations and primary sources, he believes that Fort Caroline had to have been inland a few miles on the south side of the St Mary’s river, adjacent to a sandy bluff. You can also see it from I-95. All the primary accounts allude to a bluff or a “mountain” overlooking the fort. [note: Fred Cook passed away in July 2016.]

Another former local resident,Gary Daniels, has published an intrigueing website, with a collection of first hand accounts and other interesting stuff detailing his own investigations. He explores the possibility that the fort was on the Satilla River. His website posts reprints of several of the firsthand accounts.

Also, there is another excellent webpage, with many useful, interesting links that was and still is being constructed by retired history and geography teacher Walter Mattfield, making the case for St Johns Bluff.

The purpose of this post is to provide a list of primary source reading material-the gospels, so to speak, so that those who are new to the subject may read up and draw their own conclusions. Contributions and corrections to the list are welcome and will be posted as updates. If anyone knows of anything else not listed please e-mail me and I’ll include it here. For now, I will list only primary accounts. Most of these accounts can be found verbatim on the internet, but if you prefer hard copy, many of these titles can be bought cheaply if you look around. The Solis De Meris Account is an exception, but I was able to borrow a copy through an inter library loan. There are many excellent history books on the subject as well as maps, so maybe I’ll post more lists, later on.

Three Voyages- by Renee LaudonnierRenee Laudonnier was Ribault’s second in command on the first expedition, in 1562, to Charlesfort and the leader of the second expedition founding fort Caroline in 1564. He survived the Spanish assault at Caroline and escaped back to Europe along with only a handful of the remaining soldiers and settlers. He wrote his account from memory after returning to Europe.
This volume, with Laudonniers relation, was published in 1975 by Charles Bennet, an amateur scholar and former congressman from the third district of Florida.

Laudonniere and Fort Caroline History and Documents- Charles Bennet Another publication by Charles Bennet, with several first-hand accounts in the second part of the book.

Narrative of Le Moyne, by Jacques Le Moyne de Morges
Le Moyne accompanied Laudonnier on his Fort Caroline expedition as the expeditions official artist, cartographer and special assistant. He was present at the Fort Caroline massacre by the Spanish, but also escaped and returned to Europe with Laudonnier and a handful of others. His account survives, along with a few paintings, some sketches and a map. His report details life at the fort, some travels up river and dealings with the indians, and the Spanish assault.

The Whole and True Discovery of Terra Florida, by Jean Ribault
This account was probably written from memory during Ribaults incarceration in the Tower of London in 1562 or 63. He describes the southeast coast and his first voyage, encounters with the indians, the discovery of the river of May,(which later became the site of Fort Caroline) and the building of Charlesfort at Port Royal Sound. It was written before his second voyage, when he met his death at the hands of the Spaniards.

Letters of Pedro Menendez de Aviles The leader of the Spanish expedition, Menedez gives his account of the events to King Phillip of Spain.

The accountof the chaplain of the Spanish expedition Father Francisco lopez de Mendoza Grajales, chaplain to the Menendez fleet and settlement.

An account of Dominic De Gourges revenge assault on San Mateo (formerly fort Caroline).

The Relation of Nicholas Burgoginon

Menendez de Aviles and La Florida: Chronicles of His Expeditions, by Gonzalo Solis de Meras. Solis de Meras was Menendez’ brother in law and accomplice.

The English trader and explorer John Hawkins, first cousin of Sir Francis Drake, visited Ft Caroline just before Ribaults return and the fall of the fort to the Spanish. An account by John Sparke, a sailor board one of his ships was later recorded by Richard Hakluyt.